Math is such a complex subject, one that people study for years and years to master. Now that there are more advanced ways of teaching as well as communications knowledge travels faster. If a new method is discovered, it is easily shared around the math community and all around the world. You can be hearing it taught in a school less than a year after it was discovered. While it is fantastic how easily these new findings can be shared and taught the world was not always like this.
The most ancient maths text ever made available were the Plimpton 322 [Babylonian c. 1900 BC]. The Rhine mathematical papyrus [Egyptian c. 2000–1800 BC] and the Moscow mathematical papyrus [Egyptians c. 1890 BC]. And the Pythagorean triples consists of all the text mentioned above and makes Pythagorean theorem the ancient and commonly spread maths development over the world after the major arithmetic and geometry. These documents are obviously centuries old, but the beauty of math is that so much of it is still accurate to this day, two plus two never changes to something else. So, these ancient documents can still be used today.
The beginning of maths was dealing with numbers and magnitude. The oldest form of mathematics is from the Babylonian and Egyptians. The Babylonian maths was related to the mathematics of people in Mesopotamia which were from the days of Sumerian through the Hellenistic period almost to the beginning of Christianity. Babylonian mathematical works come majorly in two distinct period which are the first few hundred years of the second millennium BC. The first proof of written mathematics dates back to the ancient Sumerian, who were the first to build the civilization in Mesopotamia. They made a difficult system of metrology from 3000 BC and also between 250 BC they also wrote the multiplication tables on clay tablets and also solve geometrical problems and division problems. These methods were so advanced for their time and still used today.
Egyptians mathematics is also a mathematics which is written in Egyptian language. And the most complex Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind papyrus which can also be called Ahmed papyrus dated to c. 1650 BC. It can be an instructional manual for students in arithmetic and geometry. It can also include proof of mathematical knowledge which consist composite and prim number and it’s show also the first order linear equations as well as arithmetic and geometric series. However, as with Egyptian mathematics, Babylonian mathematics shows no awareness of the difference between exact and approximate solutions, or the solvability of a problem, and most importantly, no explicit statement of the need for proofs or logical principles.
Another major Egyptian mathematical text is Moscow papyrus in the date of c. 1890 BC. it involves of what we today know as words problems. There are so many ancient math methods that are still used today, and we have to give credit to those who discovered them as they did not have the tools that we have today to study and learn new methods.